RSA got its name from first letter of the surname’s inventors (Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir & Leonard Adleman). RSA is an Asymmetric Algorithm that was first introduced in 1977, which is built into current operating systems by Microsoft, Apple, Sun and Novell. In hardware, the RSA algorithm can be found in secure telephones, Ethernet network cards and smart cards.
- Encryption (Note: m = Plaintext)
- me mod n = c.
- Decryption (Note: c = Ciphertext)
- cd mod n = m.
The security of RSA is based on this difficulty, since the algorithm is based on an underlying mathematical problem. Specifically, it is the problem of factoring a given large number into prime numbers.